Caching Concepts?

(P)Can you show a simple code showing file dependency in cache ?

Partial Class Default_aspx

Public Sub displayAnnouncement()

Dim announcement As String

If Cache(“announcement”) Is Nothing Then

Dim file As New _

System.IO.StreamReader _


announcement = file.ReadToEnd


Dim depends As New _

System.Web.Caching.CacheDependency _


Cache.Insert(“announcement”, announcement, depends)

End If

Response.Write(CType(Cache(“announcement”), String))

End Sub

Private Sub Page_Init(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As

System.EventArgs) Handles Me.Init


End Sub

End Class

Note :- Above source code can be obtained from CD in “CacheSample”

folder.”Announcement.txt” is in the same folder which you can play around to see the


Above given method displayAnnouncement() displays banner text from Announcement.txt

file which is lying in application path of the web directory. Above method first checks

whether the Cache object is nothing, if the cache object is nothing then it moves further

to load the cache data from the file. Whenever the file data changes the cache object is

removed and set to nothing.

(A) What is Cache Callback in Cache ?

Cache object is dependent on its dependencies example file based, time based etc…Cache

items remove the object when cache dependencies change.ASP.NET provides capability

to execute a callback method when that item is removed from cache.


(A) What is scavenging ?

When server running your ASP.NET application runs low on memory resources, items

are removed from cache depending on cache item priority. Cache item priority is set when

you add item to cache. By setting the cache item priority controls the items scavenging

are removed first.

(B) What are different types of caching using cache object of ASP.NET?

You can use two types of output caching to cache information that is to be transmitted to

and displayed in a Web browser:

Page Output Caching

Page output caching adds the response of page to cache object. Later

when page is requested page is displayed from cache rather than

creating the page object and displaying it. Page output caching

is good if the site is fairly static.

Page Fragment Caching

If parts of the page are changing, you can wrap the static sections as user

controls and cache the user controls using page fragment caching.

(B) How can you cache different version of same page using ASP.NET

cache object ?

Output cache functionality is achieved by using “OutputCache” attribute on ASP.NET

page header. Below is the syntax

<%@ OutputCache Duration=”20″ Location=”Server” VaryByParam=”state”

VaryByCustom=”minorversion” VaryByHeader=”Accept-Language”%>

VaryByParam :- Caches different version depending on input parameters send

through HTTP POST/GET.

VaryByHeader:- Caches different version depending on the contents of the

page header.


VaryByCustom:-Lets you customize the way the cache handles page variations

by declaring the attribute and overriding the GetVaryByCustomString handler.

VaryByControl:-Caches different versions of a user control based on

the value of properties of ASP objects in the control.

(A) How will implement Page Fragment Caching ?

Page fragment caching involves the caching of a fragment of the page, rather than the

entire page. When portions of the page are need to be dynamically created for each user

request this is best method as compared to page caching. You can wrap Web Forms user

control and cache the control so that these portions of the page don’t need to be recreated

each time.

(B) What are ASP.NET session and compare ASP.NET session with

classic ASP session variables?

ASP.NET session caches per user session state. It basically uses “HttpSessionState” class.

Following are the limitations in classic ASP sessions :-

ASP session state is dependent on IIS process very heavily. So if IIS restarts

ASP session variables are also recycled.ASP.NET session can be independent

of the hosting environment thus ASP.NET session can maintained even if IIS


ASP session state has no inherent solution to work with Web Farms.ASP.NET

session can be stored in state server and SQL SERVER which can support

multiple server.

ASP session only functions when browser supports cookies.ASP.NET session

can be used with browser side cookies or independent of it.

(B) Which various modes of storing ASP.NET session ?

InProc:- In this mode Session state is stored in the memory space of the

Aspnet_wp.exe process. This is the default setting. If the IIS reboots or web

application restarts then session state is lost.


StateServer:-In this mode Session state is serialized and stored in a separate

process (Aspnet_state.exe); therefore, the state can be stored on a separate

computer(a state server).

SQL SERVER:- In this mode Session state is serialized and stored in a SQL

Server database.

Session state can be specified in <sessionState> element of application configuration

file. Using State Server and SQL SERVER session state can be shared across web farms

but note this comes at speed cost as ASP.NET needs to serialize and deserialize data over

network again and again.

(A) Is Session_End event supported in all session modes ?

Session_End event occurs only in “Inproc mode”.”State Server” and “SQL SERVER”

do not have Session_End event.

(A) What are the precautions you will take in order that StateServer Mode

work properly ?

Following are the things to remember so that StateServer Mode works properly :-

StateServer mode session data is stored in a different process so you must

ensure that your objects are serializable.

<machineKey> elements in Web.config should be identical across all

servers.So this ensures that encryption format is same across all computers.

IIS metabase (\LM\W3SVC\2) must be identical across all servers in that


(A) What are the precautions you will take in order that SQLSERVER

Mode work properly ?

Following are the things to remember so that SQLSERVER Mode works properly :-

SQLSERVER mode session data is stored in a different process so you must

ensure that your objects are serializable.

IIS metabase (\LM\W3SVC\2) must be identical across all servers in that



By default Session objects are stored in “Tempdb”, you can configure it store

outside “TempDB” by running Microsoft provided SQL script.

Note :- “TempDB” database is re-created after SQL SERVER computer reboot.If you

want to maintain session state with every reboot best is to run SQL Script and store session

objects outside “TempDB” database.

(A) Where do you specify session state mode in ASP.NET ?

<sessionState mode=”SQLServer”


sqlConnectionString=”data source=; Integrated





Above is sample session state mode specified for SQL SERVER.

(B) What are the other ways you can maintain state ?

Other than session variables you can use the following technique to store state :

Hidden fields

View state

Hidden frames


Query strings

(B) What are benefits and Limitation of using Hidden fields ?

Following are the benefits of using Hidden fields :-

They are simple to implement.

As data is cached on client side they work with Web Farms.

All browsers support hidden field.

No server resources are required.

Following are limitations of Hidden field :-


They can be tampered creating a security hole.

Page performance decreases if you store large data, as the data are stored in

pages itself.

Hidden fields do not support rich structures as HTML hidden fields are only

single valued. Then you have to work around with delimiters etc to handle

complex structures.

Below is how you will actually implement hidden field in a project

<input id=”HiddenValue” type=”hidden” value=”Initial Value”


(B) What is ViewState ?

Viewstate is a built-in structure for automatically retaining values amongst the multiple

requests for the same page. The viewstate is internally maintained as a hidden field on the

page but is hashed, providing greater security than developer-implemented hidden fields


(A) Does the performance for viewstate vary according to User controls


Performance of viewstate varies depending on the type of server control to which it is

applied. Label, TextBox, CheckBox, RadioButton, and HyperLink are server controls

that perform well with ViewState. DropDownList, ListBox, DataGrid, and DataList suffer

from poor performance because of their size and the large amounts of data making

roundtrips to the server.

(B) What are benefits and Limitation of using Viewstate for state


Following are the benefits of using Viewstate :-

No server resources are required because state is in a structure in

the page code.


States are retained automatically.


The values in view state are hashed, compressed, and encoded, thus representing

a higher state of security than hidden fields.

View state is good for caching data in Web frame configurations because the

data is cached on the client.

Following are limitation of using Viewstate:-

Page loading and posting performance decreases when large values are

stored because view state is stored in the page.

Although view state stores data in a hashed format, it can still be tampered

because it is stored in a hidden field on the page. The information in the

hidden field can also be seen if the page output source is viewed directly,

creating a potential security risk.

Below is sample of storing values in view state.

this.ViewState[“EnterTime”] = DateTime.Now.ToString();

(B) How can you use Hidden frames to cache client data ?

This technique is implemented by creating a Hidden frame in page which will contain

your data to be cached.

<FRAMESET cols=”100%,*,*”>

<FRAMESET rows=”100%”>

<FRAME src=”data_of_frame1.html”></FRAMESET>

<FRAME src=”data_of_hidden_frame.html”>

<FRAME src=”data_of_hidden_frame.html” frameborder=”0″ noresize



Above is a sample of hidden frames where the first frame “data_of_frame1.html” is visible

and the remaining frames are hidden by giving whole col section to first frame. See allocation

where 100 % is allocated to first frame and remaining frames thus remain hidden.

(I) What are benefits and limitations of using Hidden frames?

Following are the benefits of using hidden frames:

You can cache more than one data field.

The ability to cache and access data items stored in different hidden forms.

The ability to access JScript® variable values stored in different frames if they

come from the same site.

The limitations of using hidden frames are:

Hidden frames are not supported on all browsers.

Hidden frames data and be tampered thus creating security hole.

(I) What are benefits and limitations of using Cookies?

Following are benefits of using cookies for state management :-

No server resources are required as they are stored in client.

They are light weight and simple to use

Following are limitation of using cookies :-

Most browsers place a 4096-byte limit on the size of a cookie, although support

for 8192-byte cookies is becoming more common in the new browser and

client-device versions available today.

Some users disable their browser or client device’s ability to receive cookies,

thereby limiting the use of cookies.

Cookies can be tampered and thus creating a security hole.

Cookies can expire thus leading to inconsistency.

Below is sample code of implementing cookies

Request.Cookies.Add(New HttpCookie(“name”, “user1”))

(I) What is Query String and What are benefits and limitations of using

Query Strings?

A query string is information sent to the server appended to the end of a page URL.

Following are the benefits of using query string for state management:-

No server resources are required. The query string containing in the HTTP

requests for a specific URL.

All browsers support query strings.

Following are limitations of query string :-

Query string data is directly visible to user thus leading to security problems.-

Most browsers and client devices impose a 255-character limit on URL length.

Below is a sample “Login” query string passed in URL

login.asp?login=testing. This query string data can then be requested later by using


(I) What is Absolute and Sliding expiration?

Absolute Expiration allows you to specify the duration of the cache, starting from the

time the cache is activated. The following example shows that the cache has a cache

dependency specified, as well as an expiration time of one minute.

Cache.Insert(“announcement”, announcement, depends, _

DateTime.Now.AddMinutes(1), Nothing)

Sliding Expiration specifies that the cache will expire if a request is not made within a

specified duration. Sliding expiration policy is useful whenever you have a large number

of items that need to be cached, because this policy enables you to keep only the most

frequently accessed items in memory. For example, the following code specifies that the

cache will have a sliding duration of one minute. If a request is made 59 seconds after the

cache is accessed, the validity of the cache would be reset to another minute:

Cache.Insert(“announcement”, announcement, depends, _

DateTime.MaxValue, _


(I)What is cross page posting?


Note :- This is a new feature in ASP.NET 2.0

By default, button controls in ASP.NET pages post back to the same page that contains

the button, where you can write an event handler for the post. In most cases this is the

desired behavior, but occasionaly you will also want to be able to post to another page in

your application. The Server.Transfer method can be used to move between pages, however

the URL doesn’t change. Instead, the cross page posting feature in ASP.NET 2.0 allows

you to fire a normal post back to a different page in the application. In the target page,

you can then access the values of server controls in the source page that initiated the post


To use cross page posting, you can set the PostBackUrl property of a Button, LinkButton

or ImageButton control, which specifies the target page. In the target page, you can then

access the PreviousPage property to retrieve values from the source page. By default, the

PreviousPage property is of type Page, so you must access controls using the FindControl

method. You can also enable strongly-typed access to the source page by setting the

@PreviousPageType directive in the target page to the virtual path or Type name of the

source page.

Here is a step-by-step guide for implementing the cross-page post back using controls

that implement the IButtonControl interface.

Create a Web Form and insert a Button control on it using the VS .NET designer.

Set the button’s PostBackUrl property to the Web Form you want to post back. For

instance in this case it is “nextpage.aspx”

<asp:Button ID=”Button1″ runat=”server”

PostBackUrl=”~/nextpage.aspx” Text=”Post to nextpage” />

When the PostBackUrl property of the IButtonControl is set, the ASP.NET framework

binds the corresponding HTML element to new JavaScript function named

WebForm_DoPostBackWithOptions. The corresponding HTML rendered by the ASP.NET

2.0 will look like this:

<input type=”submit” name=”Button1″ value=”Post to Page 2″


WebForm_PostBackOptions(“Button1”, “,false”,”Page2.aspx”, false, false))”

id=”Button1″ />


How do we access viewstate value of this page in the next page ?

View state is page specific; it contains information about controls embedded on the

particular page. ASP.NET 2.0 resolves this by embedding a hidden input field name,

__POSTBACK . This field is embedded only when there is an IButtonControl on the

page and its PostBackUrl property is set to a non-null value. This field contains the view

state information of the poster page. To access the view state of the poster page, you can

use the new PreviousPage property of the page:

Page poster = this.PreviousPage;

Then you can find any control from the previous page and read its state:

Label posterLabel = poster.findControl(“myLabel”);

string lbl = posterLabel.Text;

This cross-page post back feature also solves the problem of posting a Form to multiple

pages, because each control, in theory, can point to different post back URL.

Can we post and access view state in another application?

You can post back to any page and pages in another application, too. But if you are

posting pages to another application, the PreviousPage property will return null. This is a

significant restriction, as it means that if you want to use the view state, you are confined,

for example, to posting to pages in the same virtual directory. Even so, this is a highly

acceptable addition to the functionality of ASP.NET.

What is SQL Cache Dependency in ASP.NET 2.0?

SQL cache dependencies is a new feature in ASP.NET 2.0 which can automatically

invalidate a cached data object (such as a Dataset) when the related data is modified in

the database. So for instance if you have a dataset which is tied up to a database tables

any changes in the database table will invalidate the cached data object which can be a

dataset or a data source.

How do we enable SQL Cache Dependency in ASP.NET 2.0?

Below are the broader steps to enable a SQL Cache Dependency:-


• Enable notifications for the database.

• Enable notifications for individual tables.

• Enable ASP.NET polling using “web.config” file

• Finally use the Cache dependency object in your ASP.NET code

Enable notifications for the database.

Before you can use SQL Server cache invalidation, you need to enable notifications for

the database. This task is performed with the aspnet_regsql.exe command-line utility,

which is located in the c:\[WinDir]\Microsoft.NET\Framework\[Version] directory.

aspnet_regsql -ed -E -d Northwind

-ed :- command-line switch

-E: – Use trusted connection

-S: – Specify server name it other than the current computer you are working on

-d: – Database Name

So now let’s try to understand what happens in the database because of

“aspnet_regsql.exe”. After we execute the “aspnet_regsql -ed -E -d Northwind” command

you will see one new table and four new stored procedures created.

Figure 5.1 : – SQL Cache table created for notification

Essentially, when a change takes place, a record is written in this table. The SQL Server

polling queries this table for changes.


Figure 5.2 : – New stored procedures created

Just to make brief run of what the stored procedures do.

“AspNet_SqlCacheRegisterTableStoredProcedure” :- This stored procedure sets a table

to support notifications. This process works by adding a notification trigger to the table,

which will fire when any row is inserted, deleted, or updated.

“AspNet_SqlCacheUnRegisterTableStoredProcedure”:- This stored procedure takes a

registered table and removes the notification trigger so that notifications won’t be generated.

“AspNet_SqlCacheUpdateChangeIdStoredProcedure”:- The notification trigger calls this

stored procedure to update the AspNet_SqlCacheTablesForChangeNotification table,

thereby indicating that the table has changed.

AspNet_SqlCacheQueryRegisteredTablesStoredProcedure :- This extracts just the table

names from the AspNet_SqlCacheTablesForChangeNotification table. It’s used to get a

quick look at all the registered tables.


AspNet_SqlCachePollingStoredProcedure :- This will get the list of changes from the

AspNet_SqlCacheTablesForChangeNotification table. It is used to perform polling.

Enabling notification for individual tables

Once the necessary stored procedure and tables are created then we have to notify saying

which table needs to be enabled for notifications.

That can be achieved by two ways:-

aspnet_regsql -et -E -d Northwind -t Products

Exec spNet_SqlCacheRegisterTableStoredProcedure ‘TableName’

Registering tables for notification internally creates triggerfor the tables. For instance for

a “products” table the following trigger is created. So any modifications done to the

“Products” table will update the “AspNet_SqlCacheNotification’ table.


dbo.[Products_AspNet_SqlCacheNotification_Trigger] ON






EXEC dbo.AspNet_SqlCacheUpdateChangeIdStoredProcedure



“AspNet_SqlCacheTablesForChangeNotification” contains a single record for every table

you’re monitoring. When you make a change in the table (such as inserting, deleting or

updating a record), the change Id column is incremented by 1.ASP.NET queries this table

repeatedly keeps track of the most recent changed values for every table. When this

value changes in a subsequent read, ASP.NET knows that the table has changed.


Figure 5.3 : – Entries in the Cache notification table

Enable ASP.NET polling using “web.config” file

Now that all our database side is configured in order to get the SQL Cache working in the

ASP.NET side we need to do some configuration in the web.config file.

We need to set two attributes in the “web.config” file:-

Set “Enabled” attribute to true to set the caching on.

Set the poll time attribute to the number of milliseconds between each poll

Below is the snapshot of the web.config file.

Figure 5.4 :- Web.config file modifications for SQL cache


Finally use the Cache dependency object in your ASP.NET code

Now comes the final step to use our cache dependency with programmatic data caching,

a data source control, and output caching.

For programmatic data caching, we need to create a new SqlCacheDependency and supply

that to the Cache.Insert() method. In the SqlCacheDependency constructor, you supply

two strings. The first is the name of the database you defined in the element in the section

of the web.config file e.g: Northwind. The second is the name of the linked table e.g:


private static void CacheProductsList(List<ClsProductItem> products)

{SqlCacheDependency sqlDependency = new SqlCacheDependency(“Northwind”,


HttpContext.Current.Cache.Insert(“ProductsList”, products, sqlDependency,

DateTime.Now.AddDays(1), Cache.NoSlidingExpiration);}

private static List<ClsProductItem> GetCachedProductList()

{return HttpContext.Current.Cache[“ProductsList”] as List<ClsProductItem>;}

ClsProductItem is business class, and here we are trying to cache a list of ClsProductItem

instead of DataSet or DataTable.

The following method is used by an ObjectDataSource Control to retrieve List of Products

public static List<ClsProductItem> GetProductsList(int catId, string sortBy)


//Try to Get Products List from the Cache

List<ClsProductItem> products = GetCachedProductList();

if (products == null)


//Products List not in the cache, so query the Database layer

ClsProductsDB db = new ClsProductsDB(_connectionString);

DbDataReader reader = null;

products = new List<ClsProductItem>(80);


if (catId > 0)


//Return Product List from the Data Layer

reader = db.GetProductsList(catId);




//Return Product List from the Data Layer

reader = db.GetProductsList();


//Create List of Products -List if ClsProductItemproducts

= BuildProductsList(reader);


//Add entry to products list in the Cache



products.Sort(new ClsProductItemComparer(sortBy));

if (sortBy.Contains(“DESC”)) products.Reverse();

return products;



To perform the same trick with output caching, you simply need to set the SqlDependency

property with the database dependency name and the table name, separated by a colon:

<%@ OutputCache Duration=”600″ SqlDependency=”Northwind:Products”

VaryByParam=”none” %>

The same technique works with the SqlDataSource and ObjectDataSource controls:

<asp:SqlDataSource EnableCaching=”True”

SqlCacheDependency=”Northwind:Products” … />

Note :- ObjectDataSource doesn’t support built in caching for Custom types such as the one

in our example. It only supports this feature for DataSets and DataTables.

Just to make a sample check run the SQL Server profiler and see that does the SQL

actually hit the database after the first run.

What is Post Cache substitution?

Post cache substitution is used when we want to cache the whole page but also need

some dynamic region inside that cached page. Some examples like QuoteoftheDay,

RandomPhotos, and AdRotator etc. are examples where we can implement Post Cache


Post-cache substitution can be achieved by two means:

Call the new Response.WriteSubstitution method, passing it a reference to the desired

substitution method callback.

Add a <asp:Substitution> control to the page at the desired location, and set its

methodName attribute to the name of the callback method.


Figure 5.5 : – “Writesubstitution” in action

You can see we have a static function here “GetDateToString()”. We pass the response

substitution callback to the “WriteSubstitution” method. So now when ASP.NET page

framework retrieves the cached page, it automatically triggers your callback method to

get the dynamic content. It then inserts your content into the cached HTML of the page.

Even if your page hasn’t been cached yet (for example, it’s being rendered for the first

time), ASP.NET still calls your callback in the same way to get the dynamic content. So

you create a method that generates some dynamic content, and by doing so you guarantee

that your method is always called, and it’s content is never cached.

Ok the above example was by using “WriteSubstitution” now lets try to see how we can

do by using “<asp:substitution>” control. You can get the “<asp:substitution>” control

from the editor toolbox.


Figure 5.6 : – Substitution Control

Figure 5.7 : – Substitution in Action.


Above is a sample code which shows how substitution control works. We have ASPX

code at the right hand side and class code at the behind code at the left hand side. We

need to provide the method name in the “methodname” attribute of the substitution


Why do we need methods to be static for Post Cache substitution?

ASP.NET should be able to call this method even when there isn’t an instance of your

page class available. When your page is served from the cache, the page object isn’t

created. So ASP.NET skips the page life cycle when the page is coming from cache,

which means it won’t create any control objects or raise any control events. If your dynamic

content depends on the values of other controls, you’ll need to use a different technique,

because these control objects won’t be available to your callback


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